The first game was played in the winter of 1891 with a soccer ball. In each team, there were about nine people. They played, being sub repaired conditions of thirteen points of the printed rules. The mustached and bearded adult men dressed in long trousers and shirts with short sleeves acted as players.
The student of a class in which Naismith presented a new game in December, 1891, wrote: “Any of us, representatives of old training school in Springfield, had no idea that several years later basketball to extend worldwide, bringing health, pleasure and nervousness to millions of young men and adults”.
On February 12, 1892, studied rules and mastered equipment elements, students of the Springfield college in the presence of hundred viewers held a “official” game, the first in the history of basketball, peacefully ended with result 2:2. Its success was so deafening, and rumor about a new game was spread with such speed that soon two Springfield teams began to hold indicative meetings, bringing together hundreds of the viewers on the performances. Their initiative was picked up by students of other colleges, and the next year all American northeast was captured by basketball fever. In 1893 iron rings with a grid appear. A new game turned out so interesting and dynamic that in 1894 in the USA the first official rules were published. At the same time the basketball from the USA gets at first on the East – into Japan, China, to Philippines, and also into Europe and South America. In 1895 penalty shots from distance of 5 m 25 cm were entered. Dribbling in all its options was legalized in 1986.
Spontaneous formation of amateur commands and leagues led to the fact that students sought to play only basketball, preferring it not only to such traditional game types as the American soccer and baseball, but also the gymnastics which is hotly loved by trustees of colleges. Officials of Youth Christian Association, having listened to complaints of opponents of a new trend, did not begin to close eyes to such scandalous violation of bases of educational process and practically slammed doors of sports student’s halls. However, their aspiration to forbid the new sport which was promptly gaining popularity was like attempts to manually stop the accelerated train.
However, in these bans at desire it is possible to find also a positive side because they provoked holding the first professional basketball game, that is a game for money. There was it in 1896 when the team from Trenton, the State of New Jersey to pay rent of the hall, was forced to sell tickets for the game. Having paid off upon termination of a meeting with owners of the room, the team found out that it had part of the money gained for tickets which was equally divided between players, having made each of them is richer in 15 dollars …
In the 1920th years national federations of basketball begin to be created actively, the first international meetings are held. So, in 1919 the basketball tournament between army teams of the USA, Italy and France was held. In 1923 in France the first international women’s tournament is held. Part in it was taken by teams of three countries: England, Italy, USA. A game wins the increasing popularity and recognition in the world, and in 1932 in Geneva the International Federation of basketball associations was created. In its first structure, there were 8 countries – Argentina, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Czechoslovakia. In 1935 the International Olympic Committee passed the decision on recognition of basketball the Olympic sport. In 1936 it appears in the program of the Olympic Games in Berlin. D. Naismith was a guest of honor of games. Teams of 21 countries participated in a basketball tournament. Games were played on open tennis courts; all subsequent Olympic tournaments were held in the enclosed space. The team of the USA became the first Olympic champion. Americans of 11 more times became Olympic champions (in 1980 for lack of team of the USA the Olympic gold was won by the national team of Yugoslavia). In Sydney (2000) the American national team “Dream Team” was the first again. USSR national team – in 1972 and 1988 became twice Olympic champions.
During the Olympic Games in Berlin (1936) the first congress of FIBA where existing were considered took place and uniform international rules of the game are accepted. In 1948 members of FIBA were already 50 countries. To development of world basketball there was a development and enrichment of the equipment and tactics of a game.
In the first half of the 1950th years the basketball began to lose sharpness of fight inherent in it. It was required to make to rules a number of changes and additions for its revival. The most important of these additions were:
- introduction of the rule of 30 seconds (the team owning a ball is obliged to throw within this time a ball into a basket);
- expansion of the area of a zone in which players of attack were not allowed to be more than three seconds.
The decision on holding the World Cups among men was made on the congress of FIBA during the Olympic Games 1948 in London. The first basketball World Cup was held in 1950 in Buenos Aires (Argentina). 10 teams participated in the championship. The team of Argentina which won a victory over the Olympic champion of 1948 of the national team of the USA became the first world champion. Further the national team of the USA four times became the world champion (1954, 1986, 1994, 1998); USSR national team – three times (1967, 1974 and 1982); team of Yugoslavia also three times (1970, 1978 and 1990). Two times the team of Brazil (1959 and 1963) became the world champion.
On the congress of FIBA in Helsinki, in 1952 (during the Olympic Games), the decision on holding the World Cups among women was made. The first championship was held in 1953 in Santiago (Chile), and the American basketball players became the first champions. The team of the USA of 5 more times won a rank of world champions (1957, 1979, 1986, 1990, 1999). As much time USSR national team owned an honorable title (1959, 1964, 1967, 1971. 1975 and 1983).
The debut of female basketball at the Olympic Games took place in 1976 in Montreal. Six teams participated in a tournament. The first Olympic champions were basketball players of USSR national team who still became champions twice, the American basketball players won gold medals four times (1984, 1988, 1996, 2000).
The first European championship among men took place in 1935 in Geneva. Basketball players of Latvia won. In 1937 and 1939 basketball players of Lithuania became champions. Most honorary title athletes of the USSR – 14 times owned (1947, 1951-1953, 1957-1971, 1979-1981 and 1995-1997).
The first European championship among women took place in Rome in 1938 on which basketball players of Italy won. USSR national team – 21 times became the champion of Europe (1950-1956, 1960-1991).
The championships of Asia are held: at men – since 1960, among women – since 1965. At men, the team of China was a nine-time champion (1965-1968, 1972-1974, 1978-1984 and 1988), team of Philippines – the five-time champion of Asia (1960, 1963, 1967, 1973 and 1986). Twice the national team of Japan (1965, 1967) took priority. Women have South Korea the nine-time champion of Asia (1965-1968, 1972-1974, 1978-1984 and 1988), four times the combined People’s Republic of China (1976, 1986, 1990-1992 and 1995) was a champion.
The first championship of Africa took place in Cairo in 1962. Gold medals were won by basketball players IAR (Integrated Arab Republic). The OAR team four more times was the first – two as combined OAR (1964 and 1970) and two times as team of Egypt (1975 and 1983). The national team of Senegal – the four-time champion of Africa (1968, 1972, 1978-1980). Two times the first were basketball players of the Central African Republic (v1974 and 1987), the national team of Angola three times in a row (1989, 1992 and 1993) won the first place. Ivory Coast (1981 and 1985) was the twice champion of Africa. The championships of Africa among women are held since 1966. In the first two years basketball players of OAR (1966 and 1968) took priority, seven times became champions of Africa of the basketball player of Senegal (1974-1981, 1984 and 1990-1993), twice (1983 and 1986) – sportswomen of Zaire.
The championships of South America began to be held even before formation of FIBA. Basketball players of Uruguay who eight more times became the first (1932, 1940, 1947-1953, 1969, 1981 and 1995) became the first champion in 1930. Besides, the national team of Uruguay in 1955 got gold medals together with team of Paraguay. Thirteen times the team of Brazil won the champion’s rank (1939, 1945, 1958-1963, 1968, 1971-1973, 1977, 1983-1985 1989); Argentina – the nine-time champion (1934-1935, 1941-1943, 1966, 1976, 1979 and 1987). At women, the championships began to be held since 1946. Four times became champions of the basketball player of Chile (1946, 1950, 1956 and 1960). Record-holders are basketball players of Brazil – fourteen-time champions (1939, 1958, 1965-1974, 1978-1981, 1986-1991 and 1995). Two times the first were basketball players of Paraguay (1982 and 1962).